MED 514 Modernleşme, Ulus ve İletişim



Course Instructor: Esra Ercan Bilgiç

Spring 2010, Monday, 15:00-17:50, SE3 215


This interdisciplinary seminar course seeks to address the question of modernization and nation in relation to communication from a historical perspective. The course consists in general of two parts. The first part deals with the processes of communication in the development of nationalism and in the formation of nation states during the transition from a traditional to a modern society. The second part is concerned with media’s contribution to the maintenance of national identity. Thus the course aims to provide students with the tools to think of the media as a mediator to “transform the political ‘idea’ of nationhood into the daily experience and feeling of nationhood”. Students are expected to read across a broad range of social sciences disciplines, including history, social theory, political science, cultural and media studies.

The course will run as a seminar where each week students will present their own critical views on the readings. Each student is expected to participate through questions and comments.

Objectives and Learning Goals:

By successfully completing the course students will be able to:

  • impart knowledge of the main explanatory theories and approaches in the field
  • get acquainted with the history and development of modern nations and nationalism
  • get an understanding of the relation between media and nationalism
  • get an analytical understanding of and critical stand towards discourses of nationalism

Required Texts and Readings:

Most of the required readings are available online via MED 514 page at Online Bilgi. Additionally, a course pack consisting of the required printed texts is available at the photocopy room.

Grading and Assessment:

Assessment will be done over participation-presentations (%50), and a term paper (%50). The presentations must be critical and not simple summaries of the readings. The term paper will be minimum of 3000 words excluding bibliography, written according to MLA style, Times New Roman 12 font, double spaced, with a cover page indicating the course’s  name, the student name and student id number.

Papers are due by Friday, 28 May 2010.

The assessment rubric is as follows:

Literature review (%25)

Argument and discussion (%25)

Critical judgment (%25)

Presentation (%25)

MED 514 – Calendar and Readings:

Spring Semester 2010

Week Topic and Readings
Week 2

February 15


Llobera, Josep R. (1999). Recent Theories of Nationalism. Working paper, Barcelona: Institut de Ciències Polítiques i Socials

Oran, Baskın (1993). “Milliyetçilik Nedir, Ne Değildir, Nasıl İncelenir?”. Birikim (45-46), pp. 43-48.

Akarlı, Ahmet Orhun (1993). “Milliyetçilik Sorununa Çağdaş Yaklaşımlar”, Toplum ve Bilim (62), pp.156-170.

Behar, Büşra Ersanlı (1993). “Ulusal Kimlik: Kültürel mi Siyasal mı?”, Toplum ve Bilim (62), pp. 171-183.

Week 3

February 22

Key concepts, key debates

Hearn, Jonathan (2006). “Chapter 4: Modernism” from Hearn, Jonathan, Rethinking Nationalism. Palgrave Macmillan, pp.67-94.

Hutchinson, J and Smith (eds) (1994). “Section I: The question of definition” from Nationalism, pp.15-46.

Gellner, Ernest, (1983) “Chapter 5-What is a Nation?” from Gellner, Ernest, Nations and Nationalism, Blackwell, pp.53-62.

Alter, Peter (1995).  “Chapter 1 – What is Nationalism?” from Alter, Peter, Nationalism,  Edward Arnold, pp.4-23.

Guibernau,Montserrat (1996). “National Identity”, Nationalisms: The Nation-State and Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Polity Pres, pp. 65-84.

Week 4

March 1

Nation, communication, language

Deutsch, Karl W. (1996). “Chapter 4 – Peoples, Nation and Communication” and “Chapter 8 – National Consciousness and National Will” from Nationalism and SocialCommunication : An Inquiry into the Foundation of Nationality. Cambridge: M.I.T. pp. 86-106; 165-186.

Schlesinger, P. (2000) “The Nation and Communicative Space”, in H. Tumber (ed.) Media Power, Professionals and Policies. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 99-115.

Fishman, Joshua, (1995) “Language and Nationalism” from Woolf, S.J., Nationalism in Europe: 1815 to the Present. London: Routledge, pp.155-170.

Mardin, Serif (1961). “Some Notes on an Early Phase in the Modernization of Communications in Turkey.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 3(3), pp. 250-71.

Week 5

March 8

Nation, invention, imagination

Hobsbawm, Eric, (1992). “Introduction” from Hobsbawm, E. & Ranger, T. O., The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge University Press, pp.1-14.

Smith, A. (1998). “Invention and imagination” from Nationalism and Modernism, London:  Routledge, pp.117-142.

Ranger, Terence (1993). “The Invention of Tradition Revisited: The Case of Colonial Africa” from Ranger, T. & Vaughan,O.. Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth Century Africa. Macmillan, pp.62-111.

Anderson, Benedict (1993). Imagined Communities : Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso. (OR read the Turkish translation: Hayali Cemaatler, Metis, 2009)

Week 6

March 15

Nation, intellectuals, literature

Hroch, Miroslav (1996). “From National Movement to the Fully-Formed Nation: The Nation-Building Process in Europe” from Gopal Balakrishnan(ed.) Mapping the Nation. New York: Verso, pp. 78-97.

Çetinkaya, Y. Doğan (2002). “Orta Katman Aydınlar ve Türk Milliyetçiliğinin

Kitleselleşmesi” in Murat Gültekingil and Tanıl Bora (eds). Modern Türkiye’de Siyasi

Düşünce Cilt 4- Milliyetçilik. İstanbul: İletişim, pp. 91-102.

Köksal, Duygu (2001). “Fine Tuning Nationalism”. Turkish Studies, 2 (2), pp. 63-84.

Köroğlu, Erol (2004). Türk Edebiyatı ve Birinci Dünya Savaşı: Propagandadan Milli Kimlik İnşasına. İstanbul: İletişim.

Week 7

March 22

Banal nationalism

Billig, Michael (1995). Banal Nationalism. London: Sage

Yumul, Arus and Umut Özkırımlı (2000). Reproducing the nation: ‘banal nationalism in the Turkish press”. Media, Culture and Society, 22(6), 787-804.

Law, Alex (2001). “Near and far: banal national identity and the press in Scotland”. Media, Culture and Society, 23, pp. 299-317.

Week 8

March 29

No lecture

April 5  Spring Break

Week 9

April 12

National identity as discursive construction

Hall, Stuart (1992). “The Question of Cultural Identity” from Hall, Held at all (eds), Modernity and its Features. Cambridge: Polity, pp.273-299.

De Cillia, Rudolf et all (1999).  “The Discursive Construction of National Identities”. Discourse and Society, 10(2), pp. 149-173.

Bilgiç, Ercan Esra (2008). “Discourses of Turkish National Identity in the Newspapers of the Early Republican Period”. Unpublished dissertation chapter, Boğaziçi University, Atatürk Institute for Modern Turkish History.

Ricento, Thomas (2003). “The Discursive Construction of Americanism”.  Discourse and Society, 14(5), pp. 611-637.

Week 10

April 19

Nation and cinema

Schlesinger, Philip (2000). The sociological scope of national cinema” from Hjort Mette and Scott MacKenzie (eds), Cinema and nation. New York: Routledge, pp. 19-31.

Smith, Anthony (2000). Images of the nation: cinema, art and national identity” from Hjort Mette and Scott MacKenzie (eds), Cinema and nation. New York: Routledge, pp. 32-44.

Robins, Kevin and Asu Aksoy (2000). “Deep nation: the national question and Turkish cinema culture” from Hjort Mette and Scott MacKenzie (eds), Cinema and nation. New York: Routledge, pp. 203-221

Maktav, Hilmi (2006). “Vatan, Millet, Sinema”. Birikim (207), pp. 71-83.

Week 11

April 26

Nation and television

Hilde Van den Bulck (2001).  “Public service television and national identity as a project of modernity: the example of Flemish television”. Media, Culture & Society (23), pp. 53–69.

Robins, Kevin (2000). “Introduction: Turkish (television) culture is ordinary”.  European Journal of Cultural Studies, 3(3), pp. 291-295.

Öncü, Ayşe (2000). “The banal and the subversive: Politics of language in Turkish television”. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 3(3), pp. 296-318.

Bilgiç, Esra Ercan. Vatan, Millet, Reyting: Televizyon Haberlerinde Milliyetçilik. İstanbul: Evrensel, 2008

Week 12

May 3

Popular nationalism

Özkırımlı, Umut (2002). “Türkiye’de Gayrıresmî ve Popüler Milliyetçilik.” In Murat Gültekingil and Tanıl Bora (eds), Modern Türkiye’de Siyasi Düşünce Cilt 4 Milliyetçilik. İstanbul: İletişim, pp. 706-717.

Erdoğan, Necmi (1993). “Popüler Futbol Kültürü ve Milliyetçilik”. Birikim (49), pp. 26-33.

Türkoğlu, Didem (2008). Snapshots of Popular Turkish Nationalism: Neo-Kemalism, Bestsellers and Facebook. Unpublished MA Thesis, Boğaziçi Universtity, The Atatürk Institute for Modern Turkish History.

Week 13

May 10

Media and nationalism: a review

Martin-Barbero, Jesus (1993) “The processes: from nationalisms to transnationals”. Communication, Culture and Hegemony: From the Media and Mediations. London: Sage, pp. 168-8; 175-8.

Anderson, Benedict (1991). “The origins of national consciousness” from Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London:Verso, pp. 3-7; 37-46.

Schlesinger, Philip (1993). “Wishful thinking: cultural politics, media, and collective identities in Europe”. Journal of Communication, 43(2), pp. 6-17.

Week 14

May 17

Discussion on final papers
May 28 Final papers due